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大副面試問題及參考答案(僅供參考)

發布者:海員網|更新時間:2016-12-29 13:45:45|咨詢可以加微信:cyfu01 | 18429人評論)

我要求職 我要招聘 職務晉升 辦海員證 培訓招生 知識更新

 大副是甲板上僅于船長的“第二把手”。大副的好壞直接關系到船舶、貨物和人身安全。經驗表明,船東在面試大副時也是相當嚴格和認真的。主要集中在貨物的配載、裝卸貨、貨物的保管、貨物單據、管理能力等方面。而對于特種船來說,對有關貨物裝卸貨的有關規定等也要熟知。此外,有關ISM/SMS及其他公約、PSC檢查以及船東內外審時的提問也是一個非常重要的部分。

    下面整理了一部分面試試題,供參考。我們建議,大副不但要準備下面的一些問題,也應該看看有關船長及二副和三副的有關問題,這樣才能達到融會貫通的目的。

1.Can you tell me about your educational background and working experience?

A reference answer:

I graduated from Jimei Navigation Collage in 1992. I studied there for three years. I have worked as a seaman on eight ships for nearly ten years. I have the experience of Chief Officer for two ships. I have worked both Chinese and foreign shipowners in the past ten years.

2. Can you tell me the responsibilities of the Chief Officer?

Under the leadership of the Master, the Chief Officer shall carry out the daily management of the deck department, and he is also responsible for cargo handling. The specific duties include:

(1)Watch-keeping from 0400~0800 hours and 1600~2000 hours.

(2)Safety of the ship and work place, safety equipment.

(3)Daily safety and sanitary inspection.

(4)Store and spare parts inventory management.

(5)Maintenance on deck.

(6)Stowage plan making.

(7)Supervision of the loading and unloading process.

(8)Cargo caring on board.

(9)Some other work and designated by the master of the vessel.

3.Can you talk about the previous vessels (last vessel) you worked on board?

It was an ocean-going ship, but it mainly loaded cargoes in Asia and discharged in Europe. It was an old ship about 14 years old. But the general condition of the ship was quite good because we did very good maintenance work on board

4.What types of cargoes have ever been carried on board your last vessel?

I have worked on bulk carriers and general cargo vessels and I have experienced a lot of cargo handling.

這是一個很重要的問題,因為大副的一個很重要職責便是貨物管理。大副應該對不同貨物的裝卸、配載、保管、單據、保險等相關問題有所了解。

5.Where was your last vessel’s trading (plying, sailing) area?

It was an ocean-going ship, but it mainly loaded cargos in Asia and discharged in Europe. She has ever been to New Orleans, Long Beach, New York, Rotterdam, Hamburg and so on.

6.Did you have the experience of working with foreign crews? What were their nationalities?

The last two vessels I worked on had crew from several countries. The masters were Indian, the Chief Engineer were from Hong Kong and Philippine and other seamen from china, Indian, Burma and Vietnam.

7.Can you tell me how to make a stowage plan?

Based on the capacity of the hold, the stowage factors, types of cargo, loading and discharging ports rotation, port draft limitation, loading-line area. I shall calculate the volume of the cargo that is to be loaded into different holds. Then I shall calculate the draft of the vessel and trimming, shear force, bending moment to meet the requirements of the ship. At last, stowage plan in made based on these factors.

8.What does stowage factor of mean?

A stowage factor of any cargo is the figure that expresses the number of cubic units of measure needed to accommodate one unit of weight-how many cubic meters is needed to stow on metric ton of certain goods. Stowage factors should include allowance for dunnage, irregular size of certain goods, pallets and something else. Even the most carefully determined stowage factor is not absolute and it should be used only as guide while planning cargo disposition.

9.If there happens stevedore damage to cargo, equipment or ship’s structure in the loading or discharging ports, what should you do?

If damage happens, I must record it first and then report it in an appropriate written form to the master and other parties concerned. The report must be signed by the liable parties admitting they have (or have not) responsibility for the damage. The damage report shall be carefully worded and shall be supported with photos and other evidence, if any. The damage report should also include the following contents: ship’s name, voyage number, date, geographical location, name of the person who took the photos and his signature, location where the photo was taken, and what is intended to show.

10.What precautions do you have to take before cargo operation is carried out?

I shall check the pre-cargo operation check lists to make sure that no item is missing. The following procedures are to be adopted:

(1)The Chief Officer shall make a cargo operation plan, in which the following factors shall be considered: the cargo must be stowed in such way that the stability, trim, shearing forces and bending moments are within the limits as laid down by the stability manual; excessive weight on tank tops, tween decks and hatch covers must be avoided; and cargo must be stowed and secured in such way as to avoid damage which can result in possible loss of life or property.

(2)Pre-operation conference with all ship’s personnel to be involved in the cargo operation should be held to discuss such matters as cargo disposition, numbers of gangs and working hours, usual and special safety requirements, ballasting and de-ballasting information, special requirements regarding cargo operation, damage prevention and control, personnel organization, cargo watch etc. The Chief Officer must ensure that all relevant personnel have fully understood the intended cargo and all usual and special safety and operational requirements.

11.What will you do if cargo damage is found or suspected before loading or during loading?

I shall report to the master first and foremost. The master should decide whether to replace the damaged cargo. For the full-set machines and high-valued products I must ask for the replacement in the loading port if damages are found. If the damaged cargoes cannot be replaced, the Chief Mate shall make remarks on the Mate’s Receipt.

If disputers happen on the quantity and quality of the cargoes, I shall, at the discretion of the master, ask the cargo surveyor to do the survey. If necessary, under the endorsement of the ship owner, I shall write a Letter of Protest (based on the format provided by the company) to prove the innocence of the seamen on board.

During the voyage, if a very small amount of cargo is damaged, with the permission of the master, I shall throw it away into the sea to avoid any disputes with any third party.

12.What are the differences between the Bill of Loading and the Mate’s Receipt?

A Tally Sheet is the basis of the Mate’s Receipt. The Mate’s Receipt is the R/L. The condition of the cargo is clearly shown on the Mate’s Receipt. It is very important to make sure that the cargo condition on the bill of loading is the same as that on the Mate’s Receipt. The Mate’s Receipt is the legal evidence of the cargo received and the B/L is the legal evidence of the cargo ownership. If the consigner wants the master to issue a clean B/L on the basis of unclean Mate’s Receipt, the master firstly must ask for permission from the company. If the company agrees, the consigner must issue reliable Letter of Indemnity or Letter of Guarantee.

13.If the draft survey proves a shortage of cargo after loading is completed, what will you do apart from reporting to the Master? Will you make any remarks on the Mate’s Receipt?

In this case, I shall report the problem to the master first. With the permission of the master, I shall ask the third party surveyor to do the survey. If the survey shows there is shortage or damage of the cargo, I shall write remarks on the Mate’s Receipt showing the loss or damage or shortage.

The third party is to be invited to make the objective report on the real quantity of the volume of the cargo. If the cargo is proved to be in shortage, I shall write remarks on the Mate’s Receipt.

14.What do you know about the ISM code and SMS? How many chapters are there in the ISM Code (as amended)? What are these chapters?

The ISM code is the International Safety Management Code. The purpose of this Code is to provide an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for pollution prevention. The objectives of the Code are to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment, in particular to the marine environment and to property.

The 16 chapters of ISM Code are: general, safety and environment protection policy, company responsibilities and authority, designated person(s), master’s responsibilities and authority, resources and personnel, development of plans for shipboard operation, emergency preparedness, reports, and analysis of non-conformity, accidents and hazardous occurrences, maintenance of the ship and equipment, documentation, company verification, review and eva luation, certification and verifications and control, certification and periodical verification, verification, verification, interim certification, and forms of certificates. The last four chapters are newly added in the new version of ISM Code.

SMS means safety management system, and this system is mad based on the 16 elements of ISM Code, which is a compulsory part (第九章) SOLAS 74. The shipowner or manager cannot get Document of Compliance (DOC) and SMC without audited Safety Management Certificate (SMC) by Class designated by the flag registry country administration. Every company should develop, implement and maintain a safety management system (SMS).

15.What do Observation, Non-conformity and Major non-conformity mean respectively?

Observation means a statement of fact made during a safety management audit and substantiated by objective evidence. Non-conformity means an observed situation where objective evidence indicates the nonfulfillment of a specified requirement. Major non-conformity means an identifiable deviation that poses a serious threat to the safety of personnel or the ship or a serious risk to the environment that requires immediate corrective action and includes the lack of effective and systematic implementation of a requirement of this Code. (摘自新ISM Code原文)

以上內容不一定要非常準確詳細地背誦,但至少要知道大致的內容,尤其要知道,ISM規則是變化的、開放的國際公約,其內容經常進行修改和增加。此外,隨著ISM規則的改變,各船東和管理公司對SMS也要進行相應的修改和補充。

16.Have you experienced any on-board internal audit before?

The onboard internal audit is carried out at the discretion of the Designated Person of the owner. When the auditors come on board, the seamen should give full support to them. If observation or non-conformity items are found in the audit, these items should be treated with due diligence and rectified on time.

As the Chief Officer, I should be very familiar with the operation and calibration of the gas detector and the loading computer.

17.What is Garbage Management Plan?

The MAPROL73/78 requires that a Garbage Management Plan should be developed in accordance with the IMO guidelines on board almost all ships. The Plan includes the procedures for garbage collection, separation, processing and disposal, as well as the management and requirements of garbage processing equipment, implementation of the Plan and crew responsibilities. All processing work should be recorded in the Garbage Record Book.

18.How do you carry out the deck machinery maintenance?

On board the last vessel, I often ordered my Bosun to organize the deck crew to maintain such equipment as windlass, steering engine, derrick, crane, wires, meters and winch. Chipping and greasing are also among their daily routines as per the PMS (Planned Maintenance System).

All maintenance plans for the machines in the deck department shall be made by the Chief Officer.

19.As the Chief Officer, what precautions do you have to take to prepare for the PSC inspection?

The Chief Officer should arrange for the checks of the following items: LSA and FFE equipment, garbage disposal records, gangway safety, ballasting system, sanitary condition, especially in the accommodation area, the galley, provisions stores, cargo operation safety and documents. Besides, the Chief Officer should follow the Master’s instructions in organizing the emergency drills.

20.What precautions do you have to take before entering an enclosed space?

I shall nominate the standby personnel and prepare the ventilation, breathing tool, connecting signals, oxygen, air and poisonous gases testing equipment, and other necessary equipment according to the checklist. I shall then get the Master’s signature on the checklist.

21.What checks do you have make before any hot work is permitted?

I must make sure of the following:

There is no gas leakage on cargo deck or pump room area

The nearby places shall be free of inflammable materials or gases and portable extinguishers are available

The area where the hot work is done is not piled with solvents of any kind, including diesel oil, kerosene, paint, cleaners and thinners

Gas testing is also important to make sure no flammable or toxic gas in present at the work site and that the oxygen content is 21% by volume

Ventilation condition should also be checked before any hot work is done

The Master’s approval must be obtained under all circumstances. While in port, you must also get the port authority approval.

22.On board your previous vessels, how often did you conduct a fire-fighting drill?

I carried out a fire fighting drill at least once every month.

23.What are the Chief Officer’s responsibilities with regards to cargo operation?

The Chief Officer is in charge of safe handling of all cargo operation. He must submit all cargo plans to the master for approval and discuss ay critical stage of cargo operation with the Master. He is responsible for making cargo records, time sheets, port logs and other paperwork related to cargo operation. He must also prepare cargo operation order and get all duty officers to read and understand it.

24.What are the Chief Officer’s responsibilities with regards to maintenance?

The Chief Officer should prepare the deck maintenance schedule-both the long-term and short-term ones-and discuss the schedule with the Master. He is in charge of the deck department personnel and should oversee their maintenance work. He should also write the monthly maintenance report.

25.When the charted depth of anchorage is 40 meters, usually how do you drop the anchor?

Before dropping the anchor, I should make sure that be windlass and the brakes are in good condition and there is good holding ground. I should also study the water depth, weather and sea conditions and take into account the duration of the anchorage action.

During the anchoring, I should lower the anchor until it touches ground, then disengage and slag the chain cable until the length is paid out. Main engine should be used to stretch the cable. I should not use excessive weight for the cable.

The length of the cable must be decided by the master in advance.

No matter how deep the water is, at least two shackles should remain on board.

26.If water depth is more than 80 meters, is it possible for you to drop the anchor?

Except in an extreme emergency situation, dropping anchor in this depth of water is very dangerous. So, if the anchor has to be dropped, the geographical condition (sea bed and adjacent area), weather condition must be carefully studied beforehand. If possible, you should have a discussion or meeting with relevant crew before the work is done.

27.How do you keep proper ventilation during the voyage? Your ship is loaded with steel coil at Constanta in December and the cargo is to be discharged in Singapore.

In order to prevent rust formation on the surface of the cargo, I must make sure the temperature in holds is higher than the dew point at any times. Ventilation is to be made on the condition of dew point and try to lower the dew point.

Under the above situation, no ventilation is needed because the ship sails from a cold place (Constanta) to a hot place (Singapore).

28.How do you maintain the minimum Under Keel Clearance (UKC) when the vessel during passage/in fairways/inside ports?

In different places, the UKC may vary a little bit. Normally, the UKC should be 20% of the load draft during passage, 10% of the load draft in fairways, and 10% of the load draft inside the port. The reference data are subject to the regulations of the port authority.

29.In case of cargo damage (for example, before the vessel arrives at the discharging port, when opening the hatch, you find the quality of the surface cargo has changed, how would you handle it?

Well, I have to know the quantity of the cargo whose quality has changed. If the cargo is a small quantity, I shall dispose it myself. If it is a large quantity, I shall ask for decision from the Master.

30.What are sensitive cargoes as defined by the P & I Club?

The cargoes that are particularly susceptible to moisture and damage are called sensitive cargoes. For the sensitive cargoes, special attention shall be required. The P&I Club defines the following cargoes as sensitive cargoes: cement, grain, and sugar.

31.How do you judge whether the cargo holds are fitted for loading?

According to the requirements of the voyage instructions or the charter party, I shall first see if meets the charterer’s demands. Then I will make my own judgment. If the holds are not suitable for loading any type of cargo, I shall report this to the master and ask him to decide on this.

32.Can you please briefly explain the general requirements for grain cargo carriage?

First fill out a standard form of stability calculation.

(1)Hold Preparation

The hold should be very clean and free scale and odor. All bilges should be clean and dry. The tank top should be clean, stainless and dry. The front and rear sides of the brackets and beams, piping etc. Should be completely washed and clear of all residues and dust from the previous cargo. And if the ship carried grain in the previous voyage and insects are found in the hold, the holds should be fumigated with insecticide.

(2)Ventilation

Grain can self heat, condense and absorb moisture. Without good ventilation, the cargo can easily deteriorate. In case of bulk grain, air is to be blown to the surface of the grain continuously on a daily basis in order to remove the air from the cargo. The temperature of the cargo shall be tested by thermometer on a daily basis and be recorded in the logbook.

(3)For detailed answer, please refer to the IMO Grain Rule. (IMO Resolution A. 714 CODE OF SAFE PRACTIVE FOR CARGO STOWAGE AND SECUREING.)

33.How to conduct ventilation for hygroscopic [ˌhaiɡrəˈskɔpik]cargo from warm to cold area voyage, and from cold to warm voyage? How about the non-hygroscopic cargo?

In case of carrying hygroscopic cargoes from a warm place to a cold place, ventilation is very critical. It should be as strong as possible in the beginning so that eventually the outside dew point will be too low. This is a very difficult voyage situation in which to arrange satisfactory ventilation. From cold to warm voyage, the ventilation is not necessary.

In case of carrying non-hygroscopic cargoes from a cold place to a warm place, no ventilation is needed, and cargo sweat would occur on the surface of the stow if relativel warmer moisture laden air was admitted. From the warm to the cold voyage, no ventilation is needed because ship sweat is inevitable but cargo will be unaffected unless condensation drips back on the stow.

34.How to prevent cargo from being damaged by rain or seawater?

Before the voyage, I will check the hatch cover to see if it is properly closed that tight water condition is in good order. To make sure suction boxes and manholes are properly closed; to check the bulkhead of adjacent ballast tank.

35.What preparations should make before the pilot comes on board?

Preparations should be made in the following steps

First, the duty officer is to contact the pilot station to confirm the availability the pilot

Second, the Master is to contact the coming pilot and discuss with him the vessel’s heading position and speed at the time of his boarding

Third, the duty officer should supervise the embarkation and disembarkation of the pilot to ensure his identity and safety

Fourth, the pilot ladder must meet the standards of the US Coast Guard and the IMO

Fifth, the deck crew is to prepare the ladder well and hoist the G flag

Last, when the pilot is on board, H flag should be hoisted.

36.When you pass through the Panama Canal, what should you pay attention to? Why?

The turn of bilge radius should be made known to the pilot. According to the regulations, the turn of bilge radius of the vessel cannot be over 12.04 meters in the fresh water area. No bilge water is allowed to be pumped.

As a precaution, we should check with the MR Notice and apply for correction if on time. We should also prepare for the safety inspections by the boarding officers.

Seven days before the ship’s estimated time of passing by the Canal, we should report to the Canal authority on the vessel condition.

37.What materials and information do you need when you make the passage plan?

The passage plan shall contain all the charts required and shall locate all the information concerning the intended area. The information needed for the passage plan shall be found from the Sailing Direction, List and Lights, Tide Tables, Tidal Stream Table, Guide to Port Entry, Deep Draft Vessel Planning Guide, The IMO Ship Route Guide, Guide to Tanker Port, various ports’ information booklets, government and port regulations, Navigational Warnings, pilot Charts, Notice to Mariners, Weather Information, and so on.

38.Do you often change the ballast water? What should you pay attention to when changing the ballast water?

Yes. The ballast water change is required by most port authorities in the world.

Ballasting and de-ballasting on time is very important to keep the stress of the vessel in good condition. Under heavy weather conditions, it is necessary to test the ballasting and bilge water more often to make sure of the stability of the vessel.

39.What should you pay attention to when the vessel is loaded with coal?

Trimming is very important to make sure that cargo is evenly loaded. Since coal is liable to get fire. Fire-fighting equipment should be available at any time. Air in the cargo space should be regularly checked. Bilge water should be tested systematically to see whether there is any water leakage.

Ventilation is not allowed during the voyage. Reasonable ventilation is to be carried out when the cargo temperature is above 55 degrees Centigrade or the methane concentration is abnormal.

Also, you have to measure the cargo temperature at least once every day. If the temperature and methane are abnormal, I will report to the owner for instruction.

40.What are the functions of a B/L? what is a clean B/L and what is an unclean B/L?

A B/L has three very important functions. It constitutes evidence of the terms of the contract of carriage – a promise to carry and deliver the cargo. It constitutes the apparent order, condition, and quantity or weight of goods at the time of shipment. It is also a document of title (property) of the cargo.

A clean B/L is one on which there is not any remark of cargo loss, shortage or damage. An unclean B/L is also called claused B/L, which carries some remarks of cargo damage, quantity shortage and so on.

41.What is back dated or anti-dated B/L? What is advanced B/L?

A back dated B/L is a B/L whose issuing date is earlier than the virtual loading completion date. An advanced B/L means a B/L that is signed and issued by the carried before the completion of loading. Both backdated and advanced B/Ls will bring some dangers and liabilities to the shipowner and charterer.

42.What anti-stowaway precautions should you take before the vessel sails from a port?

Before departure from any port, stowaway search has to be carried out. The following spaces shall be searched thoroughly: void space, chain lockers, funnel, and other places where the stowaways can hide themselves.

If stowaways are discovered before the ship sails, arrangement has to be made for his immediate disembarkation. Records have to be make in the Ship’s Logs and the company should be notified. Necessary steps should be taken to prevent any further reoccurrence.

43.Who should not be allowed to have the shore leave at the same time?

In view of the jobs on board, the following positions and ranks can not be allowed to have shore leave at the same time: the Master and the Chief Officer; the Chief Engineer and First Engineer; the Chief Engineer and Electrician; the Bosun and Pumpman (in tankers); the Chief Cook and Second Cook (or mess boy); The Chief Officer and Pumpman (in tankers).

Any crew who wants to have shore leave must check with the department head for permission and return to the vessel on time.

44.What is the maximum blood alcohol concentration (BAC) rate on board?

According to the STCW 95, the BAC shall not be more than 0.08% by weight any time when being tested, but the CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) requires the BAC to be no more than 0.04%. Watch-keepers are not allowed to drink any alcoholic beverage 4 hours before their watch.

45.What kind of garbage cannot be thrown into incinerator?

The following garbage can not be thrown into the incinerator:

Any containers that once contained gases under pressure, or aerosol cans

The materials that may produce harmful gases or ashes

The materials that may produce high temperature and prolonged incineration of such materials that may cause damage to the incinerator

46.What should a Muster List include? What kind of Muster Lists did you have on the last vessel?

A Muster List should include the following points:

(1)Details of emergency alarm signal

How ship-abandon order According to the STCW95, the BAC shall not be more than 0.08% by weight any time when being tested, but the CFR (Code of Federal Regulations) requires the BAC to be no more than 0.04%. Watch-keepers are not allowed to drink any alcoholic beverage 4 hours before their watch.

(2)Will be given

(3)Substitutes for the key personnel who may become disabled

(4)The boat to which each person belongs and duties to be performed in an abandon ship situation

(5)The specific group to which a person belongs and general duties during various emergencies

(6)Any additional point of each pump

(7)Specific assembly point of each group.

The Muster Lists must be ready before a ship sails.

We had the following Muster Lists on board the last vessel: General emergency, fire fighting, fire in the engine, emergency steering, abandon-ship, man overboard, oil pollution prevention station.

47.What is heavy weather condition? Under heavy weather conditions, what preparations should you make before sailing?

I think heavy weather means weather conditions of wind force of 8 or above on the Beaufort scale and wave height of greater than 5 meters.

During heavy weather conditions, the following preparations should be made

(1)If possible, select a route that can avoid the heavy weather area

(2)Inform the crew of the predicted heavy weather and issue a warning. Make sure that the warning is known to all crew on board

(3)Check the hull strength based on stowage calculations, cargo loading and stability documents. Ballast the ship to increase the draught and take action to prevent propeller racing, reduce oscillations and slamming of the ship of the ship if the ship is in ballasting condition.

(4)Make sure the following holes are closed: hatches, cargo hold, bosun’s store, manhole; accesses to accommodation spaces and steering gear room; tank air pipes, sounding caps; all water-tight doors and water-tight openings on the ship

(5)Ensure that measures are taken to prevent movement of cargo and other objects on various parts of the ship

(6)Ensure that cargo gears such as derricks, cranes and life boat are securely lashed

(7)Ensure that the conditions of the stowage of anchors and anchor chains are checked

48.Under heavy weather conditions, what preparations should you make before sailing?

If navigating in heavy weather, the following should be paid attention to:

Adopt measures to prevent slamming and pounding of the ship, considering the frequency of encounters with swells and change speed or course if necessary?

a)The watch keeping officer shall change over to parallel operation of the steering gear, if possible

b)If possible, change the auto pilot to “rough sea mode” or change over to manual mode

c)Master shall frequently check the weather and sea conditions, observe future changes and judge if there is a problem with the present course and speed

d)Report the weather to the nearest port authority or the ships in the vicinity on the bad weather and ask them to be careful and warn them

e)The master shall check the abnormalities whenever possible to make the ship in good condition.

49.If the stevedores damage the crane, derrick or any other equipment on board, what should you do?

Firstly, I shall ask the duty officer have a careful supervision when the stevedores are loading and unloading cargo and ask the duty officers to report to me any incident or any damage the workers have done to the vessel equipment.

If equipment damages occur, usually, I will see how serious the damage is. If the damage is not very serious, I shall ask the stevedore company to make repair. At least, I shall ask the stevedores to acknowledge their liabilities. But anyway, I shall not allow the stevedore workers to leave the vessel until the damage is settled properly.

50.Before and during dry-docking for the vessel, what should a Chief Officer do?

The Chief Officer shall prepare a detailed repair list for the approval of the master and the company, adjust the proper trim as per the dock’s reqirement.

51.How do you balance the interests between the ship owner and the charterer?

Sometimes, the crew are heavily pressured in the circumstances; the charterer just pushes the master to catch time, but there will be no time for the maintenance and repairs for the vessel. But I know that the charterer is very important to the ship owner, so good relation with the charterer is very important to both the master and the ship owner.

船東希望大副既能和租家建立良好的關系,又能維護船東和利益。因為大副掙的是船東的工資,但船東掙的是客戶(租家)的錢。

52.What do you know about BC Code?

The BC code refers to the IMO Bulk Cargo Code. In this code, bulk cargo operation procedure are stated. This is a very important manual and the Chief Officer must study it with care and follow the instructions in the Code at work, especially when makes the stowage plan.

53.How should you deal with the garbage on board the ship?

MARPOL 73/78 provides for detailed regulation on garbage disposal. Usually, any shipping company should have its own Garbage Management Plan in its SMS manuals. Usually, the Chief Engineer or the Chief Officer is the designated person in charge of carrying out the garbage disposal, but all crew on board should follow the garbage management plan.

Garbage is disposed in four steps, i.e. collection, separation, processing and disposal. The Chief Engineer or the Chief Officer should make clear records in the Garbage Record Book. The Master has to make sure the Garbage Record Book is available for checks at any time.

The garbage can roughly be divided into two types: the biodegradable and persistent garbage. The former refer to those that can be rotten by themselves, such as food paper, and wood; the latter refers to those that can not rotten themselves, such as plastic, mental etc. The persistent garbage can never be thrown into the sea.

54.When should a turnover/handover of watch be deferred or postponed?

Usually, under the following situations, the turnover can be deferred or even postponed:

(1)If the officer on which has reason to believe that the relieving officer is obviously not able to carry out his duties effectively.

(2)When bridge maneuver is taking place, turnover of watch must be deferred until the action is completed and the ship is in a safe condition for the relief of the watch to take place.

55.Under what situations should you as the officer on watch reduce the ship’s speed? Can you give some examples?

The OOW should not hesitate to use engine to reduce the speed for safety. Some examples are:

(1)When the ship meets restricted visibility

(2)When the ship is in heavy traffic area

(3)When the ship is in a close quarter situation

56.What actions should be taken when restricted visibility is encountered or expected?

The following actions should be taken.

(1)Call or notify the master

(2)Stand by engine and sail at safe speed

(3)Switch on the navigational lights

(4)Switch on and sound fog signals

(5)Switch on ARPA and Radar

(6)Shift to manual steering for maneuver

(7)Post additional lookout

57.What precautions should be taken 12 hours before arrival at or departure from any port?

Tests on the following should be made before entering or getting underway:

(1)Primary and secondary steering gear.

(2)Internal control communications and control alarm.

(3)Standby and emergency generator.

(4)Storage batteries for emergency lighting.

(5)Main propulsion ahead and astern.

58.What should you do in case of steering failure?

When steering failure occurs, I shall immediately inform the engine room to change to the emergency steering gear. In the meantime I shall report to the master. If no further incidents occur, I will get the signals hoisted for a vessel not under command.

59.Do you know something about the internal and the external audit?

Internal audit is a systematic check of the management and operation situation of the vessel. The internal audit, as I remember, is carried out at least once a year. The external audit is carried out the Classification of the vessel. The surveyor of the Class usually come on board the check.

60.What is safety speed during sailing? What factors should you consider in deciding the speed of a vessel during sailing in the sea?

The safe speed is the speed at which the vessel can take proper and effective actions to be stopped in a safe distance. The following factors should be taken into account to achieve safe speed: visibility, number of ships in the area, the ship’s maneuverability, wind force, sea tide and current, background lights, draught and available depth of water, proximity of navigational hazards, standard and operation of technical equipment on board, ice condition and so on.

61.When navigating in a crossing situation, as a duty officer, what anti-collision measures should be taken? When the vessels are proceed on head-on condition, what anti-collision rule should be observed? When a power-driven ship and sailing meet in the sea, what anti-collision rule should be observed?

When two power-driven ships are crossing, the ship which has the other ship on her own starboard side shall keep out of way. To do this, this ship can either alter course to starboard side or slow down her speed in order to avoid collision.

When two power-driven ships are meeting head-on situation or near head-on situation, each ship shall alter course to starboard so that they can pass on the port side of each other at a safe distance.

When a ship sails at a higher speed overtakes another ship, the ship shall sails at higher speed or shall alter its course to avoid collision.

A power-driven ship keeps out of the way of a sailing ship. This can be done by either altering its course or speed up to avoid collision.


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